Enggineering Technology

what is welding and types of welding

Welding is a process of joining two or more parts by the application of heat and (or) pressure, Such joints are permanent in nature. Usually, coalescence is achieved by fusion. Very often filler metals are used during welding.


Welding is the process of fusing materials such as metals or thermoplastics in order to seamlessly join them. The welding process involves applying heat and pressure to the materials being combined, in addition to a filter material.

With the advent of technology, the process of welding has evolved over the years.

It is important to understand the differences between all the existing welding techniques, for selecting a right choice of welding technique for the right job.

Today many processes can be done by automated pieces of equipment, however, some projects require professional help to customize the product manually. Welding requires work and practice.

More than 50 different welding processes available today.

Welding processes are broadly classified as

  1. Fusion welding
  2. Solid state welding

FUSION WELDING: In Fusion welding coalescence is done by melting the base metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding can be further subdivided as

  1. Arc Welding

  • SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding or stick Welding)
  • GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding or MIG welding)
  • GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or TIG Welding)
  • SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
  • FCAW (Flux Cored ARC Welding)
  • PAW (Plasma Arc Welding)
  1. Resistance Welding

  • Resistance Spot Welding
  • Resistance Seam Welding
  • Resistance Projection Welding
  • Flash Welding
  1. Oxyfuel welding

  2. Others

  • Electron beam welding
  • Laser beam Welding

SOLID STATE WELDING: In solid-state welding, joining is done by the application of pressure alone or a combination of pressure and heat. Some of the solid state welding processes are:

  1. Diffusion welding (DFW)
  2. Friction welding (FRW)
  3. Ultrasonic welding (USW)
  4. Thermit Welding
  5. Forge welding
  6. Explosion welding (EXW)

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