UPSC GS

Historic conservatism in different countries

Further information: Right-wing politics and Political spectrum

Conservative political parties vary widely from country to country in the goals they wish to achieve. Both conservative and liberal parties tend to favor private ownership of property, in opposition to communist, socialist and green parties, which favor communal ownership or laws requiring social responsibility on the part of property owners. Where conservatives and liberals differ is primarily on social issues. Conservatives tend to reject behavior that does not conform to some social norm. Modern conservative parties often define themselves by their opposition to liberal or labor parties. The United States usage of the term “conservative” is unique to that country.

According to Alan Ware, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom retained viable conservative parties into the 1980s. Ware said that Australia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Spain, and the United States had no conservative parties, although they had either Christian democrats or liberals as major right-wing parties. Canada, Ireland and Portugal had right-wing political parties that defied categorization: the Progressive Conservative Party of CanadaFianna FáilFine Gael and Progressive Democrats in Ireland; and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal. Since then, the Swiss People’s Party has moved to the extreme right and is no longer considered to be conservative.

Klaus von Beyme, who developed the method of party categorization, found that no modern Eastern European parties could be considered conservative, although the communist and communist-successor parties had strong similarities.

In Italy, which was united by liberals and radicals (Risorgimento), liberals, not conservatives, emerged as the party of the right. In the Netherlands, conservatives merged into a new Christian democratic party in 1980. In Austria, Germany, Portugal and Spain, conservatism was transformed into and incorporated into fascism or the far-right.[88] In 1940, all Japanese parties were merged into a single fascist party. Following the war, Japanese conservatives briefly returned to politics, but were largely purged from public office.

Louis Hartz explained the absence of conservatism in Australia or the United States as a result of their settlement as radical or liberal fragments of Great Britain. Although he said English Canada had a negligible conservative influence, subsequent writers claimed that loyalists opposed to the American Revolution brought a Tory ideology into Canada. Hartz explained conservatism in Quebec and Latin America as a result of their settlement as feudal societies. The American conservative writer Russell Kirk provided the opinion that conservatism had been brought to the United States and interpreted the American Revolution as a “conservative revolution”.

Conservative elites have long dominated Latin American nations. Mostly, this has been achieved through control of and support for civil institutions, the church and the armed forces, rather than through party politics. Typically, the church was exempt from taxes and its employees immune from civil prosecution. Where national conservative parties were weak or non-existent, conservatives were more likely to rely on military dictatorship as a preferred form of government. However, in some nations where the elites were able to mobilize popular support for conservative parties, longer periods of political stability were achieved. Chile, Colombia and Venezuela are examples of nations that developed strong conservative parties. Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador and Peru are examples of nations where this did not occur. The Conservative Party of Venezuela disappeared following the Federal Wars of 1858–1863. Chile’s conservative party, the National Party, disbanded in 1973 following a military coup and did not re-emerge as a political force following the subsequent return to democracy.

Belgium

Having its roots in the conservative Catholic Party, the Christian People’s Party retained a conservative edge through the twentieth century, supporting the king in the Royal Question, supporting nuclear family as the cornerstone of society, defending Christian education, and opposing euthanasia. The Christian People’s Party dominated politics in post-war Belgium. In 1999, the party’s support collapsed, and it became the country’s fifth-largest party.[95][96][97] Currently, the N-VA (nieuw-vlaamse alliantie/New Flemish Alliance) is the largest party in Belgium.[98]

Canada

Main article: Conservatism in Canada

Canada’s conservatives had their roots in the loyalists Tories who left America after the American Revolution. They developed in the socio-economic and political cleavages that existed during the first three decades of the 19th century and had the support of the business, professional and established Church (Anglican) elites in Ontario and to a lesser extent in Quebec. Holding a monopoly over administrative and judicial offices, they were called the “Family Compact” in Ontario and the “Chateau Clique” in Quebec. John A. Macdonald‘s successful leadership of the movement to confederate the provinces and his subsequent tenure as prime minister for most of the late 19th century rested on his ability to bring together the English-speaking Protestant oligarchy and the ultramontane Catholic hierarchy of Quebec and to keep them united in a conservative coalition.[99]

The conservatives combined pro-market liberalism and Toryism. They generally supported an activist government and state intervention in the marketplace and their policies were marked by noblesse oblige, a paternalistic responsibility of the elites for the less well-off.[100] From 1942, the party was known as the Progressive Conservatives until 2003, when the national party merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative Party of Canada.[101]

The conservative Union Nationale governed the province of Quebec in periods from 1936 to 1960 and in a close alliance with English Canadian business elites and the Catholic Church. This period, known as the Great Darkness, ended with the Quiet Revolution and the party went into terminal decline.[102]

The modern Conservative Party of Canada has rebranded conservatism and under the leadership of Stephen Harper, the Conservative Party added more conservative policies.

Colombia

Main article: Conservatism in Colombia

The Colombian Conservative Party, founded in 1849, traces its origins to opponents of General Francisco de Paula Santander‘s 1833–1837 administration. While the term “liberal” had been used to describe all political forces in Colombia, the conservatives began describing themselves as “conservative liberals” and their opponents as “red liberals”. From the 1860s until the present, the party has supported strong central government; supported the Catholic Church, especially its role as protector of the sanctity of the family; and opposed separation of church and state. Its policies include the legal equality of all men, the citizen’s right to own property and opposition to dictatorship. It has usually been Colombia’s second largest party, with the Colombian Liberal Party being the largest.[103]

Denmark

Founded in 1915, the Conservative People’s Party of Denmark. was the successor of Højre (literally “Right”). The conservative party led the government coalition from 1982 to 1993. The party was a junior partner in coalition with the Liberals from 2001 to 2011. The party is preceded by 11 years by the Young Conservatives (KU), today the youth movement of the party. The party suffered a major defeat in the parliamentary elections of September 2011 in which the party lost more than half of its seat and also lost governmental power. A liberal cultural policy dominated during the post-war period. However, by the 1990s, disagreements regarding immigrants from entirely different cultures ignited a conservative backlash.

Finland

The conservative party in Finland is the National Coalition Party (in Finnish Kansallinen KokoomusKok). The party was founded in 1918 when several monarchist parties united. Although in the past the party was right-wing, today it is a moderate liberal conservative party. While the party advocates economic liberalism, it is committed to the social market economy.

France

See also: Gaullism and Conservatism in France

Conservatism in France focused on the rejection of the secularism of the French Revolution, support for the role of the Catholic Church and the restoration of the monarchy. The monarchist cause was on the verge of victory in the 1870s, but then collapsed because the proposed king refused to fly the tri-colored flag. Religious tensions heightened in the 1890–1910 era, but moderated after the spirit of unity in fighting the First World War. An extreme form of conservatism characterized the Vichy regime of 1940–1944 with heightened antisemitism, opposition to individualism, emphasis on family life and national direction of the economy.

Nicolas SarkozyPresident of France (2007-2012)

Following the Second World War, conservatives in France supported Gaullist groups and have been nationalistic and emphasized tradition, order and the regeneration of France.[111] Gaullists held divergent views on social issues. The number of conservative groups, their lack of stability and their tendency to be identified with local issues defy simple categorization. Conservatism has been the major political force in France since the Second World War.[112] Unusually, post-war French conservatism was formed around the personality of a leader, Charles de Gaulle; and did not draw on traditional French conservatism, but on the Bonapartism tradition.[113] Gaullism in France continues under The Republicans (formerly Union for a Popular Movement), which was previously led by Nicolas Sarkozy, a conservative figure in France.[114] The word “conservative” itself is a term of abuse in France.[115]

Greece

The main inter-war conservative party was called the People’s Party (PP), which supported constitutional monarchy and opposed the republican Liberal Party. Both it and the Liberal party were suppressed by the authoritarian, arch-conservative and royalist 4th of August Regime of Ioannis Metaxas in 1936–1941. The PP was able to re-group after the Second World War as part of a United Nationalist Front which achieved power campaigning on a simple anticommunist, ultranationalist platform during the Greek Civil War (1946–1949). However, the vote received by the PP declined during the so-called “Centrist Interlude” in 1950–1952. In 1952, Marshal Alexandros Papagos created the Greek Rally as an umbrella for the right-wing forces. The Greek Rally came to power in 1952 and remained the leading party in Greece until 1963—after Papagos’ death in 1955 reformed as the National Radical Union under Konstantinos Karamanlis. Right-wing governments backed by the palace and the army overthrew the Centre Union government in 1965 and governed the country until the establishment of the far-right Regime of the Colonels (1967–1974). After the regime’s collapse in August 1974, Karamanlis returned from exile to lead the government and founded the New Democracy party. The new conservative party had four objectives: to confront Turkish expansionism in Cyprus, to reestablish and solidify democratic rule, to give the country a strong government and to make a powerful moderate party a force in Greek politics.[116]

The Independent Greeks, a newly formed political party in Greece, has also supported conservatism, particularly national and religious conservatism. The Founding Declaration of the Independent Greeks strongly emphasises in the preservation of the Greek state and its sovereignty, the Greek people and the Greek Orthodox Church.

Iceland

Founded in 1924 as the Conservative Party, Iceland’s Independence Party adopted its current name in 1929 after the merger with the Liberal Party. From the beginning, they have been the largest vote-winning party, averaging around 40%. They combined liberalism and conservatism, supported nationalization of infrastructure and opposed class conflict. While mostly in opposition during the 1930s, they embraced economic liberalism, but accepted the welfare state after the war and participated in governments supportive of state intervention and protectionism. Unlike other Scandanivian conservative (and liberal) parties, it has always had a large working-class following.[118] After the financial crisis in 2008, the party has sunk to a lower support level around 20–25%.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg’s major Christian democratic conservative party, the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV or PCS), was formed as the Party of the Right in 1914 and adopted its present name in 1945. It was consistently the largest political party in Luxembourg, and dominated politics throughout the 20th century.

Norway

The Conservative Party of Norway (Norwegian: Høyre, literally “right”) was formed by the old upper class of state officials and wealthy merchants to fight the populist democracy of the Liberal Party, but lost power in 1884, when parliamentarian government was first practised. It formed its first government under parliamentarism in 1889 and continued to alternate in power with the Liberals until the 1930s, when Labour became the dominant political party. It has elements both of paternalism, stressing the responsibilities of the state, and of economic liberalism. It first returned to power in the 1960s.[120] During Kåre Willoch’s premiership in the 1980s, much emphasis was laid on liberalizing the credit and housing market, and abolishing the NRK TV and radio monopoly, while supporting law and order in criminal justice and traditional norms in education.

Sweden

Sweden’s conservative party, the Moderate Party, was formed in 1904, two years after the founding of the Liberal Party.[122] The party emphasizes tax reductions, deregulation of private enterprise and privatization of schools, hospitals, and kindergartens.

Switzerland

There are a number of conservative parties in Switzerland’s parliament, the Federal Assembly. These include the largest, the Swiss People’s Party (SVP), the Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP) and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland (BDP),[126] which is a splinter of the SVP created in the aftermath to the election of Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf as Federal Council. The right-wing parties have a majority in the Federal Assembly.

The Swiss People’s Party (SVP or UDC) was formed from the 1971 merger of the Party of Farmers, Traders and Citizens, formed in 1917 and the smaller Swiss Democratic Party, formed in 1942. The SVP emphasized agricultural policy and was strong among farmers in German-speaking Protestant areas. As Switzerland considered closer relations with the European Union in the 1990s, the SVP adopted a more militant protectionist and isolationist stance. This stance has allowed it to expand into German-speaking Catholic mountainous areas.[127] The Anti-Defamation League, a non-Swiss lobby group based in the United States has accused them of manipulating issues such as immigration, Swiss neutrality and welfare benefits, awakening antisemitism and racism.[128] The Council of Europe has called the SVP “extreme right”, although some scholars dispute this classification. For instance, Hans-Georg Betz describes it as “populist radical right”.[129] The SVP is the largest party since 2003.

United Kingdom

Main article: Conservatism in the United Kingdom

According to historian James Sack, English conservatives celebrate Edmund Burke as their intellectual father.[130] Burke was affiliated with the Whig Party which eventually became the Liberal Party, but the modern Conservative Party is generally thought to derive from the Tory party and the MPs of the modern conservative party are still frequently referred to as Tories.

Modern conservatism in different countries

While conservatism has been seen as an appeal to traditional, hierarchical society, some writers such as Samuel P. Huntington see it as situational. Under this definition, conservatives are seen as defending the established institutions of their time.[131]

Australia

Main article: Conservatism in Australia

The Liberal Party of Australia adheres to the principles of social conservatism and liberal conservatism.[132] It is liberal in the sense of economics. Other conservative parties are the National Party of Australia, a sister party of the Liberals, Family First PartyDemocratic Labor PartyShooters, Fishers and Farmers PartyAustralian Conservatives, and the Katter’s Australian Party.

The second largest party in the country is the Australian Labor Party and its dominant faction is Labor Right, a socially conservative element. Australia undertook significant economic reform under the Labor Party in the mid-1980s. Consequently, issues like protectionism, welfare reform, privatization and deregulation are no longer debated in the political space as they are in Europe or North America. Moser and Catley explain: “In America, ‘liberal’ means left-of-center, and it is a pejorative term when used by conservatives in adversarial political debate. In Australia, of course, the conservatives are in the Liberal Party”.[133] Jupp points out that, “[the] decline in English influences on Australian reformism and radicalism, and appropriation of the symbols of Empire by conservatives continued under the Liberal Party leadership of Sir Robert Menzies, which lasted until 1966″.[134]

Brazil

Jair Bolsonaro, the incumbent President of Brazil, known for his conservative stances.

Conservatism in Brazil originates from the cultural and historical tradition of Brazil, whose cultural roots are Luso-Iberian and Roman Catholic.[135] Brazilian conservatism from the 20th century on includes names such as Gerardo Melo Mourão and Otto Maria Carpeaux in literature; Oliveira Lima and Oliveira Torres in historiography; Sobral Pinto and Miguel Reale in law; Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira and Father Paulo Ricardo[136] in the Catholic Church; Roberto Campos and Mario Henrique Simonsen in economics; Carlos Lacerda[137] in the political arena; and Olavo de Carvalho in philosophy.[138] Brazilian Labour Renewal PartyPatriotaProgressistasSocial Christian Party and Social Liberal Party are the conservative parties in Brazil.

India

In India, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Narendra Modi, represent conservative politics. The BJP is the largest right-wing conservative party in the world. It promotes cultural nationalism, Hindu Nationalism, an aggressive foreign policy against Pakistan and a conservative social and fiscal policy.[139]

Italy

After World War II, in Italy the conservative parties were mainly represented by the Christian Democracy (DC) party, which government form the foundation of the Republic until the party’s dissolution in 1994. Officially, DC refused the ideology of conservatism, but in many aspects, for example family values, it was a typical social conservative party.

In 1994, the media tycoon and entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi founded the liberal conservative party Forza Italia (FI). Berlusconi won three elections in 19942001 and 2008, governing the country for almost ten years as Prime Minister. Forza Italia formed a coalition with right-wing regional party Lega Nord while in government.

Besides FI, now the conservative ideas are mainly expressed by the New Centre-Right party led by Angelino Alfano, Berlusconi formed a new party, which is a rebirth of Forza Italia, thuds founding a new conservative movement. Alfano served as Minister of Foreign Affairs. After the 2018 electionLega Nord and the Five Star Movement formed the current right-wing populist government.

Russia

Under Vladimir Putin, the dominant leader since 1999, Russia has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and economic liberalism. Russian conservatism is unique in some respects as it supports Economic intervention with a mixed economy, with a strong nationalist sentiment and social conservatism with its views being largely populist. Russian conservatism as a result opposes libertarian ideals such as the aforementioned concept of economic liberalism found in other conservative movements around the world. Putin has as a result promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by Aleksandr Prokhanov, stresses Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia’s historical greatness and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies.[140] Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has been one of the key ideologists during Putin’s presidency.[141]

In cultural and social affairs, Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Mark Woods provides specific examples of how the Church under Patriarch Kirill of Moscow has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine.[142] More broadly, The New York Times reports in September 2016 how that Church’s policy prescriptions support the Kremlin’s appeal to social conservatives:[143]

A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual rights above those of family, community, or nation, the Russian Orthodox Church helps project Russia as the natural ally of all those who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism, and women’s and gay rights.— Andrew Higgins (The New York Times: In Expanding Russian Influence, Faith Combines With Firepower)

South Korea

Main article: Conservatism in South Korea

South Korea‘s major conservative party, the Liberty Korea Party, has changed its form throughout its history. First it was the Democratic-Republican Party (1963–1980) and its head was Park Chung-hee, who seized power in a 1961 military coup d’état and ruled as an unelected military strongman until his formal election as President in 1963. He was President for 16 years until his assassination on 26 October 1979. The Democratic Justice Party inherited the same ideology as the Democratic-Republican Party. Its head, Chun Doo-hwan, also gained power through a coup and his followers called themselves the Hanahae. The Democratic Justice Party changed its form and acted to suppress the opposition party and to follow the people’s demand for direct elections. The party’s Roh Tae-woo became the first President who was elected through direct election. The next form of the major conservative party was the Democratic-Liberal Party and again through election its second leader, Kim Young-sam, became the fourteenth President of Korea. When the conservative party was beaten by the opposition party in the general election, it changed its form again to follow the party members’ demand for reforms. It became the New Korean Party, but it changed again one year later since the President Kim Young-sam was blamed by the citizen for the International Monetary Fund.[clarification needed] It changed its name to Grand National Party (GNP). Since the late Kim Dae-jung assumed the presidency in 1998, GNP had been the opposition party until Lee Myung-bak won the presidential election of 2007.

United States

Main article: Conservatism in the United States

President of the United StatesRonald Reagan (1981–1989). His Reagan Doctrine has reshaped the Republican Party.

The meaning of “conservatism” in the United States has little in common with the way the word is used elsewhere. As Ribuffo (2011) notes, “what Americans now call conservatism much of the world calls liberalism or neoliberalism”.[144] Since the 1950s, conservatism in the United States has been chiefly associated with the Republican Party. However, during the era of segregation, many Southern Democrats were conservatives and they played a key role in the conservative coalition that largely controlled domestic policy in Congress from 1937 to 1963.[145] The conservative Democrats continued to have influence in the US politics until 1994’s Republican Revolution, when the American South shifted from solid Democrat to solid Republican, while maintaining its conservative values.

Major priorities within American conservatism include support for the traditional familylaw and order, the right to bear armsChristian valuesanti-communism and a defense of “Western civilization from the challenges of modernist culture and totalitarian governments”.[146] Economic conservatives and libertarians favor small government, low taxes, limited regulation and free enterprise. Some social conservatives see traditional social values threatened by secularism, so they support school prayer and oppose abortion and homosexuality.[147] Neoconservatives want to expand American ideals throughout the world and show a strong support for Israel.[148] Paleoconservatives, in opposition to multiculturalism, press for restrictions on immigration.[149] Most US conservatives prefer Republicans over Democrats and most factions favor a strong foreign policy and a strong military. The conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of “godless communism”, which Reagan later labeled an “evil empire“.[150] During the Reagan administration, conservatives also supported the so-called “Reagan Doctrine” under which the US as part of a Cold War strategy provided military and other support to guerrilla insurgencies that were fighting governments identified as socialist or communist. The Reagan administration also adopted neoliberalism and trickle-down economics, as well as Reaganomics, which made for economic growth in the 1980s, fueled by trillion-dollar deficits.

Other modern conservative positions include opposition to big government and opposition to environmentalism.[151] On average, American conservatives desire tougher foreign policies than liberals do.[152] Economic liberalismderegulation and social conservatism are main principles of the Republican Party.

The Tea Party movement, founded in 2009, has proven a large outlet for populist American conservative ideas. Their stated goals include rigorous adherence to the US constitution, lower taxes, and opposition to a growing role for the federal government in health care. Electorally, it was considered a key force in Republicans reclaiming control of the US House of Representatives in 2010.[153][154]

This is a broad checklist of modern conservatism in seven countries.

 France Italy Russia Poland United Kingdom United States Israel
Main partiesThe RepublicansDebout la FranceNational RallyForza ItaliaLeagueBrothers of ItalyDirection ItalyPopular AlternativeUnited RussiaLiberal Democratic PartyLaw and JusticeUnited PolandAgreementNational MovementConservative PartyBrexit PartyDemocratic Unionist PartyUlster Unionist PartyRepublican PartyLikudIsrael BeitenuYaminaShasUnited Torah Judaism
GovernmentStrong defenders of republicanism. Opposed to federalism.Proponents of presidentialism and federalism.Strong defenders of historical Russian sphere of influence.
Celebratory of Russia’s Tsarist and Soviet strong-man rule.
Proponents of presidentialism. Opposed to federalism.Defends monarchism and unionism.
Rejects republicanism.
Supports unelected House of Lords chamber.
Defends first-past-the-post voting system.
Originally opposed to, but now accepting of Scottish Devolution and Welsh Devolution.
To Merge between the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man as a whole Country.
Supports federalism and republicanism.Proponents of presidentialism and Zionism.
State controlBonapartismGaullism.
Small sized, but centralized state.
FI, LN: small decentralized state.
FdI, NCR, and CR: small centralized state.
UR: statism. Strong, powerful, centralized state.
LDPR: strong, powerful, centralized imperialist state
Strong, centralized state.
Allegations of statism and authoritarianism.
Small centralized state.Small, minimal, decentralized state particularly at federal level.
Strongly influenced by libertarianism.
Small, semi-central state.
Social viewsRule of law, traditionalism, authority, liberty, promotion of traditional gender roles, public health care.
Strongly supportive of French culture, Francophone, and against Americanisation.
Some members are critical of abortion.
Traditionalism, opposition to immigrationcriticism of multiculturalismindividualismcult of personality, law and order, against abortion, same-sex marriage, civil unions, and euthanasia. Supportive of legal prostitution.
Critics of the Italian constitution and the Italian judiciary
Rule of law, authority, cult of personality, state unity, public unity, law and order, traditionalism.
Against modernismLGBT rights, and Western culture.
Promotion of traditional gender roles and Catholicism, opposes abortion, euthanasia, in-vitro fertilization, civil unions, same-sex marriage. Highly critical of LGBT rights.
Anti-communism.
Hierarchy, rule of law, liberty, freedom, traditionalism, British stoicism, against abortion and same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland.Individualism, traditionalism, law and order, gun ownership, promotion of traditional gender roles, against euthanasia, abortion, prostitution, pornography, and same-sex marriage.
Strong supporters of a textualist interpretation of the American Constitution and the separation of powers.
Immensely anticommunist.
Law and order, Judaism, traditionalism, defenders of the Jewish nature of the Jewish state, opposition to judicial activism and non-Jewish immigration, supporters of West Bank settlements.
Religious viewsDefends secularism.
Influenced by Catholic social teaching.
Critics of laicism, influenced by the Catholic ChurchStrong adherents to the Russian Orthodox Church.Strong adherents to the Catholic Church.High Anglicanism.
Presbyterianism in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The 2012 Republican platform states: “We support the public display of the Ten Commandments as a reflection of our history and of our country’s Judeo-Christian heritage.”[155] Heavily influenced by Evangelical Protestantism in southern and midwestern states, and Mormonism in western states.Heavily influenced by Orthodox Judaism.
Economic viewsLR and DLR: social market economydistributismnationalisation of major industries, loosely influenced by neoliberalism, moderate welfare system.
FN: nationalisation of major industries, protectionism, and moderate re-distribution of wealth, with pro-market minority faction.
Mixture of neoliberalism, protectionism, low taxation, opposition to wealth taxesMixture of state regulation and market freedoms, nationalisation only of strategic industries, low taxation, moderate re-distribution of wealth, rejection of communism.Mixture of statism and market reforms. Moderate taxation, moderate re-distribution of wealth.Neoliberalism, low taxation, privatisationfree trade, small welfare state, but unopposed to nationalized health care.Neoliberalism, economic liberalism, free market; factions are variously free or fair trade, low taxation, minimal welfare state.
Opposes government-run health care.
Generally economic liberalism, privatisation, free trade, but with some more economically statist factions. Supportive of government-run health care.
International governmentLR: supportive of the United Nations and NATO. Supportive of the European Union.
FN, DLR, and MPF: sceptical about the United Nations, NATO, and the European Union.
FI, NCR, and CR: supportive of NATO, various factions are moderately supportive or sceptical about the EU.
LN and FdI: sceptical about the EU and NATO.
Supportive of Commonwealth of Independent States and the Eurasian Economic Union.
Sceptical about the United Nations and the European Union, and critical of NATO.
Atlanticism. Mostly supportive of NATO, various factions are soft- and strong-eurosceptic.Supportive of the United Nations, NATO, and the Commonwealth. Sceptical about the European Union.Supportive of NATO and the so-called “regime change“.
Critical of the United Nations.
Critical of the United Nations and sceptical of the European Union.
Military IssuesOpposed to nuclear disarmament.Opposed to nuclear disarmament.Opposed to nuclear disarmament.In favour of nuclear disarmament.Opposed to nuclear disarmament.Opposed to nuclear disarmament.Opposed to nuclear disarmament.
International affairsLR: interventionist, favor closer ties with the United States.
FN, MPF, and DLR: non-interventionist, strong scepticism in relations with the United States.
All support closer ties with Russia.
Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionist. Support closer ties with the United States, Israel, and Russia.Interventionist, strong scepticism in relations with the United States, Georgia, and Ukraine. Support strong relations with other CIS countries, India, Syria, Iran, and China.Strong scepticism in relations with Germany and Russia, majority support strong relations with the United States.Conservatives, UUP, and DUP: interventionist, favour closer ties with Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Indonesia, Georgia and Ukraine.
UKIP: non-interventionis.
All favour closer ties with the United States, Indonesia, other Anglosphere states, and Israel.
Factions are variously interventionist or non-interventionist. Strong scepticism in relations with China, Cuba, Russia, and Iran. Favor close ties with Israel, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia.Interventionist. Strong scepticism in relations with Iran, Turkey, and Palestine. Favors closer ties with the United States, India, and Russia.



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